CHRONOSPHERE » human cryopreservation A revolution in time. Fri, 03 Aug 2012 22:34:48 +0000 en-US hourly 1 Cryonics Intelligence Test Responses Sun, 20 May 2012 17:56:35 +0000 chronopause Continue reading ]]> Introduction

On 06 May, 2012 responses were solicited to what was termed The Cryonics Intelligence Test which was posted here on Chronosphere (see: Two people responded to this public request to “take the test” and provide input on possible solutions to the problems posed by the resource material that accompanied the test. The test consisted of the resource materials and the following  instructions:

Dear ______,

If you can figure out the scientific take home message for cryonics in what is to follow, you will have demonstrated extraordinary insight into “thinking in a cryonics-medical context.”

You will also have the tool to be able to understand why I believe that cryonics must, on a purely scientific-medical basis, be pursued in a fundamentally different way, both biomedically and socially.

The Test: The test resource materials are available for download at ___________, you will find a number of full text peer reviewed scientific papers. In addition, you will be sent several cryopatient case Hxs. Together, these resources contain data which should give a reasonably intelligent person with a properly prepared mind a fundamentally new insight into a major, indeed overwhelming flaw in how cryonics has been, and currently is practiced.

Your task is to:

a) identify the problem(s)

b) identify one or more possible solutions

You have 5 days to complete this task. Your response should be in the form of a succinct statement of the problem, and an itemization, and if you like, a discussion of possible solutions.

Thanks for your patience and cooperation.

Mike Darwin


The reasons for  this exercise were as follows (in no particular order):

To answer the question posed to me by Alcor CEO on what was the most important research to be undertaking in cryonics at this time.

To determine if a representative cross section of people not actively employed in cryonics, or working in cryonics-related research, would independently reach the same or same similar conclusions about a heretofore not understood or appreciated major problem in cryonics and propose the same possible solutions (or novel ones) to said problem.

To evaluate the caliber of the intellects (who chose to participate) who read Chronosphere.

To attempt to determine the number of Chronosphere readers who were willing to accept the challenge of  exposing their judgment and intellectual performance to scrutiny, either by myself, publicly, or both.

To determine the approximate number of people who took the time and exerted the effort to at least peruse the article and download the Test Resource Materials.

To attempt to get a preliminary idea of the nature of the readers of Chronosphere and their interest in highly technical topics of serious relevance to cryonics.

To gauge the impact and reaction of both the leadership of the cryonics community, and the cryonics community itself, to the revelations that result from this exercise and the commentary that is to shortly follow it.

To solicit novel solutions to the central problem posed in the exercise.

To inform the community at large, both the cryonics community and the public, of this serious problem in the way human cryoprerservation is currently being pursued (e.g., informed consent).


Two people (Alexander McLin and Gerald Monroe ) responded to the public request on Chronosphere to take the test. Prior to publicly soliciting responses, fifteen individuals of diverse backgrounds in cryonics were privately asked to take the test. Of these, eleven agreed to do so and of those eleven, ten completed the test. Of the ten privately solicited respondents, three agreed to allow publication of their answers; two with the use of their names. One individual, a young academic pursuing advanced graduate degrees, asked for and was granted anonymity, due to the likelihood that open involvement in cryonics could prejudice his academic career.

Since it is not possible for the responses of those who chose not to allow publication to be evaluated here, I will not make any comment on them beyond noting that they exist and that they, along with those of the respondents who did allow publication, were material in making the decision to pursue an open solicitation here for additional respondents.

At this time, the answers of the respondents are being presented absent any biographical/background information, so as not to bias the reader as he reads and considers each response. At a later date, I will edit this post to add a brief (few sentences) background description on each of the participants in order to provide demographic data on the participants as a group (e.g., how many were biomedically sophisticated, laypersons, long-time cryonicists, novices, etc.).[1]


Responses are presented in alphabetical order (by name of the respondent). The only editing that has been done is to to correct typographical errors.

Alexander McLin

After studying the test materials, I have come to the following conclusions about how cryonics is currently practiced today and the problem with its current standards of practice. The problem is that cryonics isn’t effectively managing ischemia, nor it doesn’t seem to be incorporating medical findings about how the brain is affected by hypotension, hypoventilation, and hyperventilation.

Moreover, research in determining a method to predict onset of cardiac death after life-saving treatments is withdrawn indicate that this is difficult to do so, this in conjunction with other papers, show that the brain damage begins almost as soon as a patient’s circulatory system begins to fail. This is problematic from the cryonics point of view, because long before cardiac death is declared, the brain may have already suffered irreversible ischemia damage preventing optimal cryonics suspension.

The research materials furthermore show that hyperventilation when administrated for whatever reason actually makes things worse and that hypoventilation is preferred. With this in mind, do cryonics providers incorporate that finding when administrating oxygen to patients as part of the stabilization protocol?

To summarize, the conclusions I arrived at are that current cryonics providers are failing to manage ischemia, failing to research ways to predict the degree of severity of ischemia, failing to engage in proactive activities to minimize ischemia pre- and post-deanimation, and not incorporating medical findings in improving brain survivability in presence of hypotension and hypoventilation. In addition, there appear to be a lack of an attempt to maintain extensive database of patient medical history, collection of body fluids for pre and post-deanimation, and pre- and post-suspension which is essential for research intended to improve cryonics practices.

Here I will discuss solutions I have come up to address some of the conclusions I have arrived at. The biggest problem is the issue of ischemia and how likely it is to occur once oxygen is interrupted and also how sensitive the brain is to reperfusion injury. I would review the existing protocols to ensure whether they’re adequately taking the reperfusion injury into account, whether medicines need to be updated(add or remove medicines) with respect to the latest medical findings. It should be verified via meaningful actual research whether the cool-down equipment is really minimizing ischemia.

Finally, how can cryonics address the crucial issue of the existing medical-legal atmosphere that require patients to be declared dead according either to the cardiac or brain death definitions. Both which ensure that the brain will suffer ischemia damage before suspension occurs. How can cryonicists safely arrange for optimal cryonic suspension free of problematic legal implications? This suggests a need to engage in policy lobbying and pushing for legislation aimed towards changing the legal situation for the betterment of cryonics. To put it so bluntly, it appears that voluntary euthanasia is a cryonicist’s best friend, as distressing and stressful it may sound.

Lastly, cryonics providers need to establish a medical database and engage in much more data collection than they are doing at present. Some of the patient histories show recurrent problems with their collection equipment, do they need to be upgraded or replaced? Research in minimizing or preventing ischemia should be undertaken to determine how to optimize brain preservation prior to beginning suspension.

Mark Plus

Many cryonicists in hospice conditions currently deanimate and are pronounced after agonal periods similar to shock which result in prolonged hypoperfusion and hypoxia of the brain. These lead to significant compromises of the brain’s vasculature (e.g., the brain’s ability to self-regulate its blood flow to certain regions like the hypothalamus when the arterial pressure drops below 40 mm Hg) and interfere with cardiopulmonary support, washout and especially perfusion with cryoprotectants, not to mention the havoc they must cause to the brain’s fine structure.

Also, the trend towards harvesting organs from patients who are pronounced cardiac-dead after as little as two minutes of asystole is probably not a good thing for cryonicists, if the laws change to make it harder to opt out of such donations which will have the effect of ensuring thorough brain death.

My suggestions:

Use people with professional training in shock medicine and anesthesiology to perform the cardiopulmonary support after pronouncement. Monitor the level of brain perfusion with the proprietary bispectral index technology (which I had to look up and I’d like to read more about) to determine if brain hypoperfusion happens. Hypoventilate the patients.

Premedicate cryonicists before pronouncement with drugs like piracetam, arginine vasopressin and NO inhibitors, mentioned in the papers you sent me. You also wrote that Jerome White had attempted to premedicate himself with over the counter supplements until a few weeks before his suspension.

Cryonicists with terminal illnesses should consider moving to places where the laws allow assisted euthanasia so that they can go into arrest and undergo the suspension procedure well before their agonal decline.

Cryonics organizations need to gather a lot more data when they perform suspensions based on the current state of the medical art. The S-100B assay should be used along with other assays to measure brain injuries. These assays plus the bispectral index data can provide badly needed feedback on the effectiveness of brain perfusion procedures.

If the patient can’t deanimate at the time of his choosing, use some of the medical models developed by the DCD researchers to better estimate the patient’s time of cardiac death during standby.

I hope my answers and recommendations are not too off the mark, and I suspect I’ve misunderstand or failed to notice some key points. You gave me a lot of unfamiliar material to absorb in a short amount of time. After a few more weeks of study, I could probably understand it better. Some kind of primer would also help. A few years ago I speculated that based on actuarial considerations, the ideal candidate for cryosuspension would have to be a healthy ten year old who could walk into the lab and lie down on the table. That leaves the rest of us somewhere away from optimal candidacy for cryosuspension. But then, what can we do about it?

And I do plan to study this further, so thank you very much for the scientific background information, and feel free to send me additional papers.

Other observations:

I notice the contrast between the thorough reports you’ve written for the suspensions you’ve performed versus the ones written by Alcor’s “pod people,” which apparently includes Aaron Drake. Several things seem to go wrong with about every suspension Alcor has done lately, including basic preparations like not having the tray of all the necessary surgical tools ready for Dr. Nancy or the surgeon. I knew in a vague way that things had gotten bad, but you’ve given me some idea of how bad.

The scientific literature started to report the effects of shock and hypoperfusion decades ago, but you wouldn’t know that from the “official” cryonics propaganda. It seems like the cryonics movement should have incorporated this knowledge from the very beginning, but then physicians, surgeons and neuroscientists have mostly avoided cryonics and deprived us of their expertise. Dr. Ravin Jain, a neurologist, sits on Alcor’s board, and he should know this stuff, but I don’t get the impression that he’s done anything to incorporate his knowledge into Alcor’s suspension procedures. The neglect gives cryonics a reputation for “scienciness” and pseudoscience which it doesn’t necessarily have to have.

Gerald Monroe

a. The current techniques practiced for all the cryonics cases most likely result in long periods of ischemic hypoperfusion to the brain. Instruments now exist to detect this, combining the bispectral index with near infrared spectroscopy, and apparently even when top notch experts support cardiac surgeries on children, the hypoperfusion is common.

The ischemia and the hypoperfusion are very, very bad. Of course, so is the freezing. And the storage in liquid nitrogen where dissolved oxygen can reach the tissues and oxidize them. And the shoestring budget (compared to even a single hospital) the cryonics organizations have to do everything on.

b. It doesn’t sound like these problems are insoluble if there were real resources (compared to those spent to delay death from cancer by a few months, for instance) dedicated to the problem. Tomorrow, if cryonics had the resources of a single major metropolitan hospital, it could actually solve these problems in a systemic way.

There have to be experiments done on animals, where many different techniques* are attempted and evaluated. Evaluations should be done by preparing synapses of slices of the subject’s brain following the freezing. Also, rewarming and function tests (of slices), once the state of the art reaches the point that this is practical.

The human patients have to be part of this evaluation. If no one looks, the mistakes made will never be corrected. Somehow very small pieces need to be removed as samples from the human patients, following each cryonics procedure, small portions mostly taken from sections of the patient’s brain not thought to contain unique personality information.

And so on. Real improvements don’t come easily or cheaply – they come incrementally, with great effort, and honest evaluation of the results of each change. The last element is probably the most important of all.

The history of medicine is littered with many, many examples where something becomes common practice without honest testing of the results. Pretty much universally it fails.

With all that said, for those of us right here, alive in an era where cryonics does not have the resources it deserves, it is simply Pascal’s wager. No matter how dim the odds are, some chance of a form of survival is better than none. Information is probably duplicated inside the human brain many times over, and all of the decay processes that work against cryonics are things that happen according to predictable laws of physics. In a future world where a brain could be scanned at the molecular level, there is probably at least some recoverable memory and personality data for even the worst cryonics case.

For some, the prospective of saving even an incomplete fragment of yourself is better than the guaranteed destruction by rotting in the ground or burning in an incinerator.

Why it is like it is : the cryonics organizations don’t have any money. There’s probably a hundred new things that could be tried, and most of them are not better than what is being done now. Every dollar spent now is a buck less that could go to protecting the existing patients over many more decades.

Moreover, without any way to evaluate the current baseline : how effective is cryonics actually preserving the patients, right now? Making changes blindly is stupid. In the history of medicine, time and time again, it has been found that when a simple and dumb medical technique is compared honestly to a more expensive and advanced technique, almost universally the difference is minimal to none. A few examples : diuretics work as well as the far more expensive and specific beta blockers, film X-rays provide basically the same therapeutic improvement as the vastly more expensive CTs and MRIs, physical therapy works about as often as spine surgery, etc.

This is why in countries with socialized medicine, with outdated equipment and techniques and long wait lists, the patients live almost as long. (and the population lives years longer due to better lifestyles)

* A few ideas that might or might not work :
1. More rapid cooling by exposing the brain to coolant with burr holes and connecting pumps directly to cerebral perfusion
2. Drugs to prevent the cerebral arterioles from closing when exposed to cold perfusate.
3. Calcium blockers to prevent apoptotic pathways from triggering
4. Oscillating magnets like the Japanese claim work for transplanting teeth
5. Skipping cryonics entirely and plastinating the brain

Jordan Sparks, DMD

Well, I’ve read all the papers. I’ve attached the notes I made. I know you said I could skim them a little more quickly, but I was having trouble understanding and remembering. I needed to use a more aggressive approach this time. I did the references to help me get organized, and if I had to do that again I would do it without listing out all the names. Anyway, this is where I’m at.

I have a tentative answer which I may refine later. I’m continuing to think about it. You only gave me one cryopatient case Hx. I notice that it’s rich with hematology and chemistry data. Repeated samples were taken and charted over time. Both the TBW circuit and the cryoprotective perfusion circuit are well documented. Pressures and flow rates are nicely charted. Also, glycerol, blood gas, and pH were monitored during cryoprotective perfusion. The lab samples, in particular, are notable because that is not the current practice of Alcor or CI. It would take me some time to look back through case reports to see when was the last time this was done.

a) Cryonics providers are currently disregarding complexity associated with the biochemical milieu. I’m not quite sure how to state it, but all of the 22 papers treated their problems as a complex interplay of the mechanical issues as well as the biochemistry. Reading current Alcor and CI reports, on the other hand, there is a total disregard for the role of biochemistry.

That’s my first stab at it. I wish I could state it better, and I might try to rewrite it. I might wait for feedback from you before I go much further in case I’ve missed your point.

1.  Fast recovery from shock used vasopressor combined with hypertonic saline starch.  Slow recovery used fluid resuscitation.  Propofol and Hb concentrations were comparable in both groups.  The fast recovery resulted in better cerebral perfusion and a higher BIS that was likely due to the better perfusion.  CPP =MAP−ICP.

2.  Three resuscitation protocols: 1=FR (fluid resuscitation), 2=NA/HS (noradrenaline/ hypertonic starch), and 3=AVP/ HS (arginine vasopressin/HS).  The AVP/HS group had faster and higher increase in MAP and CCP as well as better survival.  Also, ICP was lower.

3.  After significant hypervolemia, cerebral circulation decompensation occured.  There were significant regional variations in cerebral blood flow.  The redistribution favored the areas related to cardiovascular control.

4.  Patients in shock can have normal physiological, hematological, fluid, and electrolyte balance but still die due to metabolic abnormalities.

5.  In spite of mechanisms for preferential shunting of blood to the brain, low MAP will result in poor perfusion.  This results in inadequate oxygenation as well as inadequate lactate washout.  Decreased perfusion leads to ischemic damage.

6.  Hemorrhagic hypotension was induced in dogs which was still above the lower limit of cerebral autoregulation.  This resulted in an increased turnover of free fatty acids in the CSF.

7.  Moderate reduction of MAP in anesthetized cats resulted in no significant EEG changes.  Below 40 mm Hg, cortical rhythms slowed and then stopped.  Cell damage was only found below 40 mm Hg.

8.  Baboons were pretreated with Phenoxybenzamine (PBZ) before hypovolemic shock, and it prevented the fall in cerebral blood flow.  EEG does not normally return after reinfusion.

9.  Bispectral index (BIS) dropped to 0 during cerebral hypoperfusion.

10.  For donation after cardiac death (DCD) kidneys, prolonged severe hypotension was a good predictor of subsequent organ function.  Donor age also correlated with worse outcome.

11.  Dogs anesthetized and hypovolemic shock induced for 2 hours.  NMR used to monitor phosphate metabolism.  Upon fluid resuscitation, phosphate pools quickly returned to near baseline values, but intracellular acidosis persisted.

12.  Hemorrhagic shock combined with increased ICP is particularly damaging.  Increased ICP leads to cerebral ischemia which causes release of thromboxane A2 (TxA2), a potent vasoconstrictor and hypertenstive agent.  The increase in TxA2 persists for at least two hours after reperfusion and results in further cerebral hypoperfusion.  Pretreatment with COX inhibitor ibuprofen decreases TxA2 levels and improves total cerebral blood flow after global cerebral ischemia.

13.  Brain is vulnerable during hypotension and shock, especially long-lasting shock.  Patchy areas of ischemia developed through sludge formation and persisted even after hyperperfusion, indicating the role of local factors.  Phenoxybenzamine pretreatment significantly reduced rCBF changes during shock.

14.  DCD livers result in inferior graft survival compared to donation after brain death (DBD).  A DCD risk index was developed.  The lowest risk is with donor age <= 45 years,  warm ischemia time (DWIT) <= 15 minutes, and cold ischemia time (CIT) <= 10 hours.

15.  CNS activity was measured during hemorrhagic shock under light central anesthesia.  After reinfusion, if neurons failed to recover electrical activity, this was an early indication of eventual irreversibility.  There is a relationship between irreversibility and cumulative oxygen debt and excess lactate.

16.  Rats were subjected to hypoxia and hypotension followed by resuscitation.  Rather than the no reflow that the authors were expecting, they observed hyperemia in some areas for at least two hours.  They concluded that therapy aimed at increasing cerebral blood flow and oxygenation would be insufficient.

17.  Guidelines for controlled DCD are given.  DBD is superior.

18.  DCD score system is described.  Kidneys may benefit from therapeutic interventions before transplantation.

19.  Average values for basal respiratory functions in adolescents and adults.

20.  Severe hypotension causes brain damage.  Microvascular damage results in hemorrhage upon reinfusion.

21.  Prolonged agonal time did not influence kidney transplantation outcome when other variables were closely considered instead.  For example, elderly donors were not included.

22.  During hypovolemic shock, electrical activity and ICP was minimally altered.  The authors interpret this as a lessening of the role of the brain in the genesis and perpetuation of irreversible shock.


1: Cavus E, Meybohm P, Doerges V, Hoecker J, Betz M, Hanss R, Steinfath M, Bein B.  Effects of cerebral hypoperfusion on bispectral index: A randomized, controlled animal experiment during haemorrhagic shock.  Resuscitation.  2010;81:1183-1189.

2: Cavus E, Meybohm P, Doerges V, Hugo HH, Steinfath M, Nordstroem J, Scholz J, Bein B.  Cerebral effects of three resuscitation protocols in uncontrolled haemorrhagic shock: a randomized controlled experimental study.  Resuscitation.  2009;80:567-572.

3: Chen RY, Fan FC, Schuessler GB, Simchon S, Kim S, Chien S.  Regional cerebral blood flow and oxygen consumption of the canine brain during hemorrhagic hypotension.  Stroke.  1984;15:343-350.

4: Cowley RA, Attar S, LaBrosse E, McLaughlin J, Scanlan E, Wheeler S, Hanashiro P, Grumberg I, Vitek V, Mansberger A, Firminger H.  Some significant biochemical parameters found in 300 shock patients.  J Trauma.  1960;9:926-938.

5: Feldman RA, Yashon D, Locke GE, Hunt WE.  Cerebral tissue lactate in experimental oligemic shock.  J Neurosurg.  1971;34:774-778.

6: Fritschka E, Ferguson JL, Spitzer JJ.  Increased free fatty acid turnover in CSF during hypotension in dogs.  Am J Physiol.  1979;236(6):H802-H807.

7: Gregory PC, McGeorge AP, Fitch W, Graham DI, MacKensie ET, Harper AM.  Effects of hemorrhagic hypotension on the cerebral circulation.  II.  Electricocortical function.  Stroke.  1979;10:719-723.

8: Hamar J, Kovach AGB, Reivich M, Nyary I, Durity F.  Effect of phenoxybenzamine on cerebral blood flow and metabolism in the baboon during hemorrhagic shock.  Stroke.  1979;10:401-407.

9: Hemmerling TM, Olivier JF, Basile F, Le N, Prieto I.  Bispectral index as an indicator of cerebral hypoperfusion during off-pump coronary artery bypass grafting.  Anesth Analg.  2005;100:354-6.

10: Ho KJ, Owens CD, Johnson SR, Khwaja K, Curry MP, Pavlakis M, Mandelbrot D, Pomposelli JJ, Shah SA, Saidi RF, Ko DSC, Malek S, Belcher J, Hull D, Tullius SG, Freeman RB, Pomfret EA, Whiting JF, Hanto DW, Karp SJ.  Donor postextubation hypotension and age correlate with outcome after donation after cardiac death transplantation.  Transplantation.  2008;85:1588-1594.

11: Horton JW, McDonald G.  Heart and brain nucleotide pools during hemorrhage and resuscitation.  Am J Physiol.  1990;259:H1781-H1788.

12: Kong DL, Prough DS, Whitley JM, Taylor C, Vines S, Deal DD, DeWitt DS.  Hemorrhage and intracranial hypertension in combination incresae cerebral production of thromboxane A2.  Critical Care Medicine.  1991;19:532-538.

13: Kovach A, Sandor P.  Cerebral blood flow and brain function during hypotension and shock.  Ann Rev Physiol.  1976;38:571-596.

14: Lee KW, Simplins CE, Montgomery RA, Locke JE, Segev DL, Maley WR.  Factors affecting graft survival after liver transplantation from donation after cardiac death donors.  Transplantation.  2006;82:1683-1688.

15: Peterson CG, Haugen FP.  Hemorrhagic shock and the nervous system.  1. Spinal cord reflex activity and brain stem reticular formation.  Annals Surgery.  1965;485-496.

16: Proctor HJ, Wood JJ, Palladino W, Woodley C.  Effects of hypoxia and hypotension on oxygen delivery in the brain.  J Trauma.  1979;19:682-685.

17: Reich DJ, Mulligan DC, Abt PL, Pruett TL, Abecassis MMI, D’Alessandro A, Pomfret EA, Freeman RB, Markmann JF, Hanto DW, Matas AJ, Roberts JP, Merion RM, Klintmalm GBG.  A J Transplant. 2009;9:2004-2011.

18: Plata-Munoz JJ, Vazques-Montes M, Friend PJ, Fuggle SV.  The deceased donor score system in kidney transplants from deceased donors after cardiac death.  European Society Organ Transplant.  2010;23:131-139.

19: Shock NW, Soley MH.  Average values for basal respiratory functions in adolescents and adults.  J Nutrition.  1939;143-153.

20: Tamura H, Witoszka MM, Hopkins RW, Simeone FA.  The nervous system in experimental hemorrhagic shock: morphology of the brain.  J Trauma.  1972;12:869-875.

21: van Heurn LWE.  Prolonged agonal time–not a contraindication for transplantation.  Nat Rev Nephrol.  2011;7:432-433.

22: Yashon D, Locke GE, Bingham WG, Wiederholt WC, Hunt WE.  Cerebral function during profound oligemic hypotension in the dog.  J Neurosurg.  1971;34:494-499.


As you wrote in 1994, the three sources of damage to cryopatients are 1) the underlying disease process, 2) shock and global and trickle flow ischemia secondary to dying and cardiac arrest, and 3) cryoprotectant toxicity and cryoinjury from freezing. This, as far as I can tell, has not changed. So, a flaw in how cryonics is practiced would have to mean that providers are not minimizing the damage from these processes as well as they could be. #1 is out as that is not the primary mission of cryo providers, although I agree with the arguments on your blog that they could add some value here too. #3 is also basically out, because gains over M22 seem unlikely to come in the near future, at least outside of 21CM.

That leaves #2. A number of the papers you sent me study animal models of hemorrhagic shock, and the results are not pretty for preservation of cellular structure. For example, the amount of necrotic cells in Ozkan et al’s paper is pretty high–up to 50% necrotic in the temporal lobe, after just 3 hours. The natural question is: if a cell undergoes necrosis, has it irretrievably lost the information coded in its cellular state? The answer is unclear. On one hand, it may be possible to reverse engineer the process of cell degradation from the surviving clues and thus recover the position of crucial membrane receptors and/or neurites. On the other hand, if the degradation process is random enough, that may not be the case. Probably it depends on the specifics — “cell necrosis” is a broad class.

A number of the other papers look at the acceptability of donors who died of cardiac death. It seems that kidneys can last up to 4 hr’s of warm ischemia with similar function post-transplant, while lungs following can hardly withstand 15 mins of warm ischemia time and still offer good function post-transplant. Meanwhile, it is practically common knowledge that the organ which is least able to survive following ischemic time is the brain. Finally, there is regional susceptibility variation within the brain, and there are reasons to think that regions like CA1 that may be especially important for identity (i.e., memory) are especially vulnerable to ischemia.

To me, this emphasized how quick the interventions must be and how essential it is to maximize the time period during which oxygen perfusion in the brain is high. There’s no reason why neurons have to be able to withstand lack of oxygen for long before randomly decaying — evolution has little reason to select for it. It is a bias of operating on human timescales to think that not much can happen within five minutes, but molecular timescales unfold much faster.

You also sent a few papers that evaluated measures to query brain activity via EEG. You seem to have a particular interest in one EEG-derived algorithm called the Bispectral Index, which in a few fascinating cases actually went to zero in the absence of cerebral blood flow during surgery. These are interesting in part because they could potentially be used to monitor CBF in cryo patients.

Which brings me to the major problem that we see in many of the case reports you sent me. That is, we have good reason to believe that all of them had already experienced a very low brain oxygen perfusion prior to clinical death. The signs of this are many, and include the hyperventilation of A2435 and A2361, the terrible peripheral perfusion of A1556, the hypotension and fluid loss of A1614, ACS9577′s poor perfusion and very low coma scale score, and the long periods of apnea and low blood pressure of A2420. One of the papers that you sent me called the period after removal from life support and cardiac death the “agonal phase”, and this phrase has been aptly used in cryonics to describe the period during which a patient is known to be eminently terminal but has not yet reached cardiac death.

One key question is whether these patients are ever in fact technically brain dead, meaning no neural activity at all, as measured by EEG or CT. If they are, then it is possible that clinical death could be pronounced and preservation techniques could be started much sooner. When I first thought of this, I was hopeful that I had discovered your “problem.” But on further contemplation I’m not so sure, in part because it seems like people would have thought of this. So, I am going with the more obvious, and indeed in some senses more troubling, problem that many or most cryonics patients experience torrents of brain damage during their agonal period.

What to do about this?

1) Somehow establish, in the US, legal recognition of the rights of cryo patients to initiate procedures to preserve brain-encoded identity when the patient is diagnosed by independent physicians to be terminal, in a similar way that organ transplants are.

2) Use a workaround by going to a country like Switzerland that already allows assisted suicide in such cases, perform the cryopreservation there, and then ship the patients back on dry ice to the US.

3) #2, except establish a new storage facility in the foreign country.

4) Develop, drawing off of the “normal” biomedical literature, substantially improved methods for preserving brain oxygen perfusion in agonal cryonics patients, and implement these on a routine basis.

One of the interesting things about this problem is that it is not specific to cryopreservation but would also apply to plastination, and may even be more pronounced there. So this is one area where progress, if any is made on either front, would certainly be synergistic.

A meta thought of mine about this assignment is that I didn’t like the assumption that I would be able to diagnose problems and suggest solutions so quickly to a problem that many people have spent lots of time thinking about. I doubt that what I have written above is at all novel.

Still, I did find it to be a very worthwhile exercise to learn about some details of cryopreservation and its associated medical concepts, and for that, I thank you for offering it to me.


I want to extend a sincere thank you to all who participated in this exercise, and especially to Alexander McLin, Mark Plus, Gerald Monroe, Jordan Sparks, DMD, and “Synaptic” for publicly participating. It takes an enormous amount of courage to undertake such an exercise on the Internet, where it both is and will remain open to public scrutiny, more or less indefinitely. Congratulations gentlemen, you have my unreserved admiration for your courage and for your willingness to take a personal risk in pursuit of the truth. — MD


[1] Excluded from the private solicitation for participation were individuals actively employed in cryonics or working as paid, or indirectly paid employees or contractors for cryonics organizations, or in cryonics-related research. The public solicitation for participation was open to all comers.

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Almax Cryostat Post-Manufacturing Preparation Procedure STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURES (With Specimen Contract & Purchase Order) Thu, 10 May 2012 21:03:20 +0000 chronopause Continue reading ]]> Credits: Ben Best, Andy Zawacki, Mike Darwin

Adapted from Source Document:—Cryonics-Institute

PURPOSE: To detail the procedures used for set-up and final preparation of Almax fiberglass-composite resin long-term patient care cryostats. This standard operating procedure (SOP) (aka Best Practices) details the vendors, materials and techniques used to prepare the Almax cryostats for full operational status after receipt from the manufacturer.

1.0. Detail of configuration and a brief overview of the manufacturing procedure used to produce cryostats.

Almax cryostats are cylindrical, double walled vessels that employ perlite and low vacuum (1-12 torr) insulation to facilitate highly efficient long-term liquid nitrogen refrigeration of cryopatients. Each unit has an overall height of 327.7 cm, an external diameter of 182.9 cm, an internal diameter of 121.9 cm and a useable internal height of 218.4 cm. The static liquid nitrogen capacity of Almax cryostats is approximately 2550 liters with a static boil-off rate in the range of 10.5 to 12.5 liters per day. Adult, human, whole body patient capacity is between 4 and 6 patients, depending upon patient diameter and the method of packaging used.

1.2.  Engineering details are presented Figure 1.1-1.2.

Figure 1.1: Detailed engineering specifications for the Almax long-term patient care Cryostats.

The cryostats are fabricated from a fibreglass mat-modified vinyl ester (Hetron 922, Ashland Chemical Co.) composite. The basic procedure for fabrication consists of building up layers of glass mat saturated with a resin monomer that is reinforced with carboxyl-terminated butadiene-acrylonitrile copolymer. The resin is polymerized (cured) using methyl ethyl ketone peroxide (2-butanone peroxide, or MEK-peroxide), which initiates free-radical cross-linkage of the monomer. This technique avoids incorporation of the MEK peroxide catalyst into the finished polymer, rendering it more stable, more corrosion resistant and less chemically reactive. Five millilitres of MEK peroxide are used per pound of Hetron 922. The inner vessel (can) of the cryostat is an open- topped cylinder with a concave bottom made from of vinyl ester resin and glass mat with a wall thickness of ~13 mm. The outer cylinder (can) is comprised of the same material, has a wall thickness of ~15 mm and is connected to the inner can only by a glue bond where the two are joined at the opening of the inner can on the top of the cryostat.

The opening of each cryostat is closed with a snug-fitting insulating neck-plug with an external cover of 14 gauge grade #2, 304 stainless steel. The insulating neck-plug is made from 22 layers of 2.5 cm thick Owens-Corning high density extruded polystyrene insulating foam board (~121.9 cm in diameter by 55.9 cm thick.) which are sandwiched between the stainless steel cover and an inner cover of painted chip board or marine plywood using 4 threaded nylon rods to compress and secure the foam to the inner and outer covers of the cryostat lid. A section of 5.1 cm diameter PVC plastic pipe penetrates the neck-plug and external cover in the center allowing access to the inside of the cryostat for temperature and liquid level monitoring.

Figure 1.2: Detailed engineering specifications for the Almax long-term patient care cryostats.

1.3.  Cryostats are manufactured under contract with Almax Products, a company owned and operated by Bruce Alter, located in Bearsville, New York:

Almax Products                    Mailing address:  Almax Products

363 Coldbrook Road                                            P.O. Box 441

Bearsville, NY 12409                                           Bearsville, NY 12409

Phone: 845-679-4615  FAX: 845-679-8620   email:

Almax subcontracts the work of building the cryostats shells to Polymil Products, (contacts Sam Yacuzzo and Tammy Shultz) of LeRoy, NY:

Polymil Products, Inc                 585-768-8170

51 North Street

Leroy, NY 14482

Purchase price for 1 cryostat, ordered in May 2009 was $23,000 US, half payable on issuance of the purchase order and half payable by 45 days after delivery.

Perlite insulation is for the units is obtained from:

Noble Perlite                             405-872-5660

312 W Chestnut

Noble, OK 73068-8545

On average, 70 thirty-pound bags of perlite are used by Almax in a preliminary filling of the annular space prior to shipment of the cryostat. An additional 14 bags of perlite are shipped with the unit and used to top-up the annular space after shipping; the perlite settles en route due to handling and movement of the cryostat. Cost per bag as of 16 May, 2009 was ~ $20 US, per bag, including wrapping and palletizing, in preparation for shipment.

Currently shipment is being arranged by Almax and charges for the last load of perlite were $__________ US.

The stainless steel cover for the cryostat is manufactured by:

Beck Industries, Inc.

24462 Sorrentino Court,

Clinton Township,MI, United States, 48035
(586) 790-4060 PHONE
(586) 790-4982 FAX

Figure 1.3: Stainless steel cryostat covers manufactured by Beck Industries, Clinton Township, MI.

The covers are 127 cm in diameter x 7.6 cm deep with a 20.3 cm circular central access port cover. The cover has 1/8″ diameter holes at 116.8 cm bolt circle, 22.9 cm bolt pattern with 1/8″ screw holes and 7.6 cm sides which are skip welded around the 127 diameter of the cover. The covers are fabricated from 14 gauge, grade #2, 304 stainless steel.

Price is $860.00 US per cover. Charge for palletizing and shipping to Bearsville, NY is $200.00 US.

TOTAL PRICE $_________ US

Figure 1.4: Removal of cryostat from shipping vehicle/container.

1.4  Atmospheric air is withdrawn from the annular space of the cryostat in order to create a vacuum in two stages. The first stage employs a roughing pump which is capable of reducing pressure in the annulus to ~ 5 x 10-2 torr, however it will only be necessary to achieve a stable vacuum of ~ 500 torr before switching to the polishing/ maintenance vacuum pump. The roughing pump used is  in an Alcatel ACP-15, 8.2 cubic ft/min with a peak pumping speed of 14 m3 /hr and a final vacuum capacity of 5 x 10-2 torr. The ACP-15 employs Roots blower technology. Roots pumps are positive displacement machines using two synchronized rotors rotating in opposite directions. The rotors feature profiles usually shaped like the figure 8.During the rotation, molecules of gas are isolated between the lobes and the stator and then led to the exhaust side of the pump without variation of volume.


Figure 1.5: Alcatel ACP-15 roughing pump.

The ACP-15 features a frictionless pumping module that is optimized for operation without internal lubrication. Complete technical specifications, operation and servicing instructions for the ACP-15 are present as Appendix 1 to this SOP.

Figure 1.6: Welch 1376C-03, DUOSEAL®, two-stage, belt drive high vacuum pump.

Final ‘polishing’ evacuation of the cryostat annulus as well as maintenance of the vacuum, is achieved using a Welch 1376C-03,DUOSEAL®, two-stage, belt drive high vacuum pump. The Welch pump has a peak pumping capacity of 300 LPM (10.6 CFM) with a final achievable vacuum of 1 x10-4 torr. The Welch pump motor is configured to operate on 220V, 50 Hz,1 PH and is supplied with Schuko plug which must be replaced with a ____________ plug prior to be being placed into service.

Complete technical specifications, operating and servicing instructions for the Welch Welch 1376C-03,DUOSEAL® pump are present as Appendix II to this SOP.

2.0.  Shipment and unloading of the cryostat.

2.1.  The cryostats is palletized and prepared for shipment via commercial freighter in a sea-land container. It is then shipped, either by semi-trailer, or by truck, within the sea-land container, on wooden skids (generally skids of very poor quality). Drag chains are placed around the skids and they are pulled to the end of the trailer. Then they are pulled out further with the forklift so that the rear end of the skid rests firmly on the trailer and the opposite end of the skid is then lowered to rest on a wooden support frame so that the pallet holding the cryostat can be can be picked-up from the side with the forklift, removed from the  truck and moved into the facility where the cryostat is placed on custom made steel frame castered trolley for additional preparation, prior to placement into service.

Figure 2.2: The forklift is repositioned at the side of the cryostat/pallet and the unit is removed from the vehicle and placed on the ground..

 Figure 2.3: The evacuation port cover plate used to hold perlite in place and prevent contamination of the perlite with moisture during shipping is unbolted and removed.

 Table 2.1: Equipment, Tools and Supplies Required to Remove Cryostats from Delivery Vehicle

Item Description Quantity & Specifications
Steel drag chain Promac WD-113 or higher:
S- hooks 2,500 kg load (minimum)
Wooden support frame 10.2 cm x 10.2 cm x X cm X cm X cm
Snug fitting pig skin leather work gloves Size required by personnel
Forklift with long tines 5,000 kg load capacity
Metal shears To cut securing tie bands

2.2.  The cryostat is shipped from the manufacturer with a resin-composite cover plate and sealing gasket secured to the evacuation port opening of the unit with 12 bolts (Figure 1.3). This cover plate serves both to contain the perlite insulation material and keep it dry during shipment. Perlite is moderately hygroscopic and will absorb water from the atmosphere in high humidity environments. Once the cryostat is in the storage facility, the cover plate is unbolted and the cover plate and the neoprene rubber gasket that seals it to the evacuation port flange are removed and set aside. The evacuation port opening is then immediately covered with a heavy-duty, 3 mil plastic refuse bag that is tightly secured in place with a ratchet-type nylon tie-down strap. It is important to immediately and tightly cover this opening to prevent moisture from entering the annular space and contaminating the perlite, since this would make subsequent evacuation of the annulus difficult, or impossible.

  Figure 2.4:  A custom built trolley fabricated from powder coated welded steel tube stock and high quality 3″ diameter urethane casters is used to safely move the  cryostat around the facility in the horizontal position during post -manufacturing preparation. Wooden skids are used to protect the cryostat from damage by the steel frame of the trolley.

 2.3.  The cryostat is transported to the work-area at the facility by placing it on a custom built metal trolley. The unit is left on the trolley until all preparative work (prior to hoisting the unit into the upright position) is completed.

3.0 Topping up the cryostat with perlite.

3.1 Protective clothing consisting of a heavy-duty, hooded Tyvek work coverall, fabric reinforced vinyl gloves and a full face N-100 respirator are donned. Duct tape is used to secure the hood opening of the of Tyvek suit to the edges of the respirator, the sleeves of the Tyvek suit to the work gloves and the tops of the work boots to the leggings of the Tyvek coverall, as shown in Figure 3.1, below. It is important to achieve a seal at all joints in the protective clothing in order to prevent the highly irritating perlite dust from contaminating the worker’s skin.

3.2  The plastic bag covering the evacuation port is removed and perlite is poured from the bags into the evacuation port opening as shown in Figure 3.2. The perlite is spread out inside the annular space and packed tight with wooden spreading and tamping paddles that are made in-house, as shown in Figure 3.3, below. Considerable force is required to tamp the perlite solidly into place, and typically the full weight of the worker must be brought to bear on the tamping paddle.

Figure 3.1: Duct tape is used to secure and seal the respirator, gloves and boots to the protective Tyvek coverall in order to prevent perlite dust from coming into contact with the workers’ skin. An full-face N-100 respirator is to provide respiratory protection from the perlite dust. Note perlite spreading and tamping tools resting on the cryostat at the middle left of the photo.

 Figure 3.2: Perlite is poured from the 20 lb bags into the cryostat annular space with the workman standing atop the cryostat.

Figure 3.3: A spreading and tamping tool are fabricated from plywood and a 24 x 24 x 61 cm piece of lumber (which serves as the handle). The spreading tool has the handle offset to one side of the plywood plate, while the tamping tool has the handle secured to the center of the plate allowing for stability and even distribution of load when compressing the perlite. The handles are secured to the plywood plates using  1/4″  by 3″ wood screws reinforced with quick-set epoxy adhesive.


Figure 3.5: Perlite is tamped into place in the annulus of the cryostat using the wooden tamping tool.

Figure 3.6: When the annular space is filled with packed perlite to the level of the bottom of the evacuation port no additional perlite is added and the top of the cryostat is brushed off with a household broom.

Figure 3.7: The evacuation port is again tightly covered with a plastic bag to prevent entry of water vapor into the annular space.

Figure 3.8: A jet of compressed air is used to clean the perlite dust off of the cryostat.

4.0.  Preparation of the evacuation port and evacuation valve assembly.

The first step in preparing the evacuation plumbing assembly is to sweat solder a 27 cm long x 3/4″ piece of copper onto a 3/4″ NPT Stainless Steel Ball Valve Full Port WOG1000 SS304 SUS304 0.75 .75 Female Ports.

Assemble the tools and supplies required for sweating the section of pipe into the valve. Prepare the copper pipe by sanding both ends using fine grit sand paper. Apply solder paste to the end to be sweated to the ball valve and insert the pipe into the 3/4″ copper T-connector. Don gloves and heat the copper pipe and connector with the torch for approximately 30 seconds. Apply solder by touching a J-shaped piece of solder to the joint 7 times; the solder will be drawn into the joint between the pipe and connector by capillary action. If the metal is not hot enough, reheat it with the torch as necessary. Allow the solder to cool and set-up for 60 seconds and then wipe the joint clean with a shop towel. Any remaining excess solder may be removed with a wire brush.

The threaded copper NPT to pipe slip fitting is then attached to the vacuum shut-off valve using Teflon thread sealing tape to insure a gas-tight seal.

Table 4.1 Tools and Supplies Required for Sweating Joints in Copper Pipe


Item Description Quantity
Copper Pipe 1 ea  3/4″ x 27.9 cm
Pipe cutter 1 ea
Pipe cleaner & de-burrer 1 ea
Solder paste 1 tube, 3 ounces
Solder Silver solder (non rosin core)
Mapp gas or propane gas torch 1 ea
Gloves 1 pair, close-fitting work gloves
Teflon plumber’s sealing tape 1 roll


Figure 4.1: A section of copper pipe is sweat-soldered into the female end of a brass NPT connector which is then screw threaded into a ball type shut off valve using Teflon pipe joint sealing tape.



The valve and pipe assembly are then attached to the evacuation port cover plate by drilling a hole just large enough to admit the copper pipe in the center of the 41.9 cm diameter cover plate. It is important that the hole be a tight fit to the valve and pipe assembly so that the pipe can be securely cemented into place without any possibility of leaks (there must be a gas-tight seal). The copper pipe is prepared for cementing into place by sanding with fine grit sand paper, after which it is degreased using acetone and a clean rag (or lint-less disposable shop towel). The end of the pipe to be attached to the evacuation port cover is then painted with Special Blend MFR-10 lb laminating resin (low volatile organ compound, mixed 100 to1 with methyl ethyl ketone (MEK) peroxide (supplied by Michigan Fiberglass Sales, St. Claire Shores, MI)  and the pipe is inserted into the previously drilled hole. Additional coats of laminating resin and glass mat, as needed, are used to secure the evacuation pipe in place, with care being taken to ensure that the pipe opening remains clean and unobstructed by resin. Each coat of applied resin is allowed to fully cure before the next coat is applied.

Figure 4.2: Top: the evacuation port cover plate with the stub of copper pipe to which the vacuum valve will be attached already in position. Bottom: schematic of the evacuation port, vacuum valve and T assembly housing the thermocouple vacuum gauge.

The back of evacuation port cover plate and the tip of the copper evacuation pipe assembly is then prepared for bonding to the flange of the evacuation port by being sanded with fine grit sandpaper. Once the plate has been “roughed-up” so that the adhesive epoxy will adhere, it is blown clean of particulates with a jet of compressed air, and then wiped with a clean rag dampened with acetone. Seven 6”x6” squares of cotton batting for filtration are painted with special blend MFR-10 lb laminating resin, low V.O.C. mixed  100/1 with MEK Peroxide (both from Michigan Fiber Glass Sales, St. Claire Shores) for hardening and adhesion.

Figure 4.3: Cotton batting filter pads are shown being cemented in place on back of evacuation port cover plate.

Figure 4.4.: The edges of the cotton bats are saturated with adhesive resin and smoothed onto the back of evacuation port cover plate.

The neoprene rubber gaskets that were between the evacuation port cover plates and the evacuation port flanges during shipment from Almax are used as templates for cutting the 3/4 ounce chopped strand FG-03438 fiberglass cloth rings.

Figure 4.5: The rubber sealing gaskets used to protect the annulus from the ingress of dirt and moisture during transport of the cryostat from the manufacturer are used as templates for cutting rings of fiberglass cloth which will act as the permanent sealing gasket.

Figure 4.6: It is important to wear respiratory protection whenever working with or around fiberglass. N-95 masks are suitable for such work, whereas a full-face N-100 respirator is required for work where perlite dust is being generated.


The fiberglass cloth rings are then applied to the cryostat evacuation plate flange using the same laminating resin that was used to adhere the cotton filter pads.

Figure 4.7: This illustrates proper preparation for cementing the fiberglass cloth rings to the evacuation port plate flange. Note the presence of a piece of protective (black) plastic to prevent damage or marring of the surface of the cryostat with the resin being used to cement the rings in place.

Figure 4.8: Household fiberglass building insulation (Owens-Corning) is used to plug the opening of the evacuation port. This prevents the perlite from migrating into the vacuum line, and it also serves as a coarse pre-filter for the larger particles of perlite dust, preventing them from entering the vacuum pumps.

Owens-Corning fiberglass “wool”  building insulating is packed against the perlite to prevent the perlite from plugging the filter.  The edges are then painted with laminating resin to facilitate adherence of the fiberglass cloth rings.

Figure 4.9: The edges of the evacuation port flange are carefully painted with resin to insure adhesion of the fiberglass cloth rings and to facilitate a thorough seal when the port cover is applied and clamped in place for final bonding to the flange.


 4.10: A small paint application roller is used to evenly apply (and assure saturation of) the fiberglass cloth rings to the flange.

A roller applicator is used to apply more laminating resin to the fiberglass cloth  rings. Three fiberglass “cloth” rings are applied in this manner to each cryostat. [The non-disposable parts of the roller may be cleaned up with acetone after use.] Once preparation of the fiberglass cloth rings is completed, the back surface of the evacuation port cover plate is painted with resin, taking care not to contaminate the cotton batting filters.

Figure 4.11: After the prep of the filter is completed and the final coat of adhesive has been applied, the back of the evacuation port cover plate is carefully and completely painted with adhesive resin taking care not to get resin on the cotton filter pads.

Figure 4.12: The evacuation port cover is then attached to the flange and held in place tightly with 4 equidistantly spaced C-clamps which are left in place until the resin has dried and fully hardened (~72 hours under normal working conditions).

The evacuation port cover with its integral filter (i.e., glued-on assembly of 3 cotton bats) is then clamped onto the flange opening and held in position for the adhesive resin to set up and cure.

5.0 Initial (rough) evacuation of the cryostat

 Initial evacuation of the cryostat is undertaken using the Alcatel ACP-15 roughing pump to a stable vacuum of ~ 500 torr. The Welch 1376C-03,DUOSEAL®, two-stage, belt drive high vacuum pump. must not be used for initial evacuation of the cryostat.  Failure to pre-evacuate the cryostat using a roughing pump will result in contamination of the oil in the two-stage pump with water and can damage the pump mechanism. Additionally, two-stage vacuum pumps are not designed to pump high density atmospheric gas – they are to be used only as “polishing” pumps to  harden and subsequently maintain the vacuum to ~ 1.0 torr.

Figure 5.1: Initial evacuation of the perlite filled annulus is accomplished using the Alcatel roughing pump. An inexpensive Bourdon tube vacuum  gauge (VG350-14CBM) is interposed in the vacuum line (mounted on a 3/4″ copper T-connector) to monitor the progress of the initial pump-out.

Figure 5.2: Once a vacuum of ~ 1.0 torr is achieved, the vacuum valve is closed, the roughing pump is removed, and the 2-stage vacuum pump is connected to the annulus. For this preliminary hardening of the vacuum a thermocouple vacuum gauge is used and is placed near the pump, for convenience.

 6.0 Preparing the base of the cryostat prior to erection upright.

A five foot diameter circle of 3/4″ plywood is used to seal and secure the bottom of the cryostat. The plywood circle has three 5″diameter holes cut in it, arranged as shown in Figure 6.1, to allow for 2-part  urethane foam resin to be poured into the space between the plywood circles and the bottom of the cryostat. Once the urethane resin foams, expands and sets, it serves to stabilize and reinforce the plywood so the bottom of the cryostat and ensure that  it is well supported and stable on the floor when the unit is finally filled with liquid nitrogen.

Figure 6.1:Circles of 3/4″ plywood are cut so as to fit into the opening of the base of the cryostat’s outer cylinder. Three 5″ diameter holes, spaced equidistant from each other are cut into the plywood to allow for filling of the space between the plywood discs and the bottom of the cryostat with urethane foam. The discs are placed with the holes at the top of cryostat base so that the urethane resin-activator mixture does not leak out onto the floor during loading into the base of the cryostat.

 Figure 6.2: The plywood disc is initially held in place with duct tape until it can be firmly anchored with steel tube stock or metal bars to prevent it from being displaced by the expanding urethane foam.

The plywood disc is initially secured to the bottom of the cryostat with duct tape and then clamped firmly into place using rigid steel tube stock or metal bars and heavy-duty C-clamps, as shown in Figures 6.2 and 6.6

The  space between the plywood disc and the bottom of the cryostat can now be filled with supporting, rigid, closed-cell urethane foam. The foam used for this is MF-1002 1.2 lb density urethane foam (from Michigan Fiberglass Sales). The foam is prepared from a two component kit consisting of  urethane resin (part-A) and activator (Part-B) which are mixed in equal parts using a wooden paint mixing-type stick in disposable 2-gallon paper pails. The resin, activator, paper pails and wooden mixing paddle are included with each MF-1002  kit.

Figure 6.3: The two (A&B) components of the urethane foam are mixed in disposable paper pails using a wooden mixing paddle (also disposable). The foaming reaction begins almost immediately and is well underway within a minute.

Figure 6.4: Foaming action of the combined resin and activator less than a minute after being combined and thoroughly mixed in the mixing-dispensing pail.

Once the components are mixed, the activated urethane resin will expand to ten times its starting volume and will subsequently harden into dense foam. The foaming action begins within 60 seconds of the start of mixing of the resin and activator, so it is necessary to quickly pour the mixture into the holes in the plywood. The activated urethane resin is poured into the headspace using disposable funnels made from lightweight aluminum sheet metal (~22 gauge). The resulting urethane foam requires approximately an hour to set and  is fully cured in 24 hours.

Figure 6.5: Lightweight flexible aluminum sheet metal is formed into half-cones which are taped in place to form funnels. These disposable funnels are then used to facilitate pouring the mixture into the 5″ holes cut into the plywood discs, starting with the lower holes and finishing up with the top holes.


Figure 6.6:Once the urethane foam has filled the headspace and has stopped exhausting from the filling holes, the holes are covered with squares of plywood which are screwed into place. The plywood disc should then be primed and painted with a waterproof oil-based, or two-part epoxy concrete floor paint, to prevent subsequent water damage due to efflorescence from the concrete slab, or insect (termite) infestation.

Four to six 2-gallon pails of the activated resin mixture is typically enough for each cryostat. [ The density of the foam may be altered by changing the ratio of resin and activator: more part-B than part-A results in a larger final volume of foam with less density.]

The cryostat is now ready for movement to the patient storage area of the facility for erection to a vertical position, fire-retardant coating, final hardware outfitting, painting and placement into service.


By  Mike Darwin



These Conditions may only be varied with the written agreement of the Purchaser.. No terms or conditions put forward at any time by the Supplier (Almax)  shall form any part of the Contract unless specifically agreed in writing by the Purchaser.


In these Conditions:

“Purchaser” means the Purchaser, a limited liability company located at OOO “Purchaser_______________________________________________, hereinafter referred to as ‘Purchaser.’

“Supplier” means Almax Products, 363 Coldbrook Road, P.O. Box 441, Bearsville, NY, United States of America, 12409, Phone: 845-679-4615, FAX: 845-679-8620   email: hereinafter referred to as ‘Almax.’

“Goods” means any goods as are to be supplied to Purchaser by Almax Products (or by any of the Supplier’s subcontractors) pursuant to or in connection with this Contract, as detailed in the Purchase Order attached to this contract and in Section 2.4, below.

“Contract” means the Contract between Purchaser and the Almax consisting of the Purchase Order, these conditions and any other documents (or parts thereof) specified in the Purchase Order and in A.

“Purchase Order” means the document setting out Purchaser’ requirements for the Contract.


2.1       The Goods shall be to the reasonable satisfaction of Purchaser and shall conform in all respects with any particulars specified in the Contract and in any variations thereto.

2.2       The Goods shall conform in all respects with the requirements of any statutes, orders, regulations or bye-laws from time to time in force.

2.3       The Goods shall be fit and sufficient for the purpose for which such Goods are ordinarily used and for any particular purpose by Almax in the supply of the Goods and the execution of the Contract.

2.4       Specifically, Almax agrees to provide the following goods and services:

2.4.1   A double walled, cylindrical, composite vinyl ester resin fiberglass, perlite and vacuum (10-3 mm Hg) insulated cryogenic liquid nitrogen biological specimen storage container (cryostat) based on the engineering drawings provided by Almax Products and attached to this Contract as Exhibit A. The inner vessel diameter is 1220 mm, and the inner vessel height is 2440 mm (tolerance ± 2 mm). The outer vessel diameter is 1830 mm, and the outer vessel height 2740 mm (without stand). With the stand the overall height of the cryostat is 3200 mm. The empty weight with the stand attached is 1814 kg. The inner cylinder wall thickness is a minimum of 12.7 thick. The approximate working volume for liquid nitrogen of the cryostat is 2142 liters.

All drawings are included in the price. Almax will send detailed drawings, blueprints and photos as requested, upon signing the contract.

Materials of construction for the cryostat are as follows:

Outer cylinder or shell: H-992  MEKP/COBALT STRUCT

Inner cylinder or shell:  H-992 MEKP/COBALT STRUCT



Nozzle necks: H-992  MEKP/COBALT STRUCT

External nuts/bolts: CS

CS Gaskets: 11 mm Neoprene rubber

Corrosion Barrier: 1-ply “C” backed W 2-ply chopped strand fiberglass laminate

Exterior: Five (5) coats of FireFree FF88 tumescent fire protective coating as supplied by FIREFREE Coatings, Inc., 580 Irwin Street, Suite 1, San Rafael, CA 94901, Phone: (888) 990-3388, USA and applied per the manufacturer’s specifications and instructions attached as Exhibit B to this Contract.

Design Pressure: (4′) + 15 PSIG, (6′) – 15 PSIG

Design standards: ASTM-D3299

2.4.2   A stand for the cryostat is provided equipped with 4 casters capable of easily rolling over finished concrete floors with the unit fully loaded with liquid nitrogen at  a gross weight of 2,430 kg including the cryostat stand, neck-plug and cover.

2.4.3   Cryostat will be loaded with perlite prior to shipment. Additional perlite will be furnished for “top off” as per 2.4.4, below. Price of cryostat inclusive of above: $25,000 with $3,000 discount on a second cryostat if ordered with 90 days of the receipt of the unit specified in this Contract.

2.4.4   Fourteen (14) bags Grefco Minerals HP-500 grade perlite as supplied Noble Perlite, 312 W Chestnut, Noble, OK 73068-8545 USA, phone:405-872-5660.@ $ 30 a bag (30 pound bag) plus a $15.00 pallet charge, price: $435.00

2.4.5   One (1) each resin kit to include: 2 ea: 10″ wide x 50 yards rolls of 1.5 oz FRP mat and 1 each 5-gallon drum of 411-400 resin, price: $545.00

2.4.6   Annular space vacuum burst disc to be provided by Purchaser or Purchaser’ designated vendor FOB to Almax.( Rupture disc set pressure: 15 psi rupture temp: ambient (-20 to +45 deg C) normal operating pressure: 2.5 x 10-5 torr (high vacuum) on one side, ambient pressure (1 atmosphere) Almax installation charge: $175.00

2.4.7   One (1) each extra 41.9 cm diameter evacuation port/filter cover plate to be supplied by Almax, price $245.00

2.4.8   One (1) each 41.9 cm diameter evacuation port/filter cover plate fully outfitted with 7-ply cotton filter and 3/4″ copper pipe and fittings, including Mueller brand 3/4″ ball brass ball valve (Home Depot part #06P115) sealed and assembled per the procedure detailed in Exhibit C, attached to this Contract, price included in base cryostat price.

2.4.9   Five (5) each: steel clevises for lifting cryostat capable of bearing a weight of at least 1,000 kg each, price: $148.50.

2.5.0   One (1) each R-06413-30 Tygon® vacuum tubing, 3/8″ID x 7/8″OD, 10 ft/pack, price $115.00

2.5.1   One (1) each 10 ft length Fischer Scientific red rubber vacuum tubing 9.5mm ID 22.3mm OD, 3/8″ ID 7/8″ OD., price: $69.90

2.5.2   Almax agrees to work with the subcontractor selected for the cryostat cover, Beck Industries of 24454 Sorrentino Court, Clinton Township,MI, 48035, USA, Phone number (586)790-4060, to ensure that the stainless steel cover fabricated by Beck Industries fits the cryostat supplied by Almax. In the event the cover does not fit due to incorrect specification supplied to Beck Industries by Almax, then Almax shall be fully liable for the replacement cost of said cover.


3.1       The price of the Goods shall be as stated in the Contract and no increase will be accepted by Purchaser unless agreed by them in writing before the execution of the Contract.

3.2       Unless otherwise agreed in writing by Purchaser, Almax shall render a separate invoice in respect of each consignment delivered under the Contract. Payment shall be due 30 days after receipt of the Goods or the correct invoice therefore, whichever is the later.

3.3       Taxes, where applicable, shall be shown separately on all invoices as a strictly net extra charge.

3.4       The cost of palletizing and preparing the cryostat for shipment and for shipping the container is to be paid by Almax. Shall employ a licensed and bonded forwarder to handle the entire shipping procedure to include arranging the pick-up and delivery of Goods, filing and completing all required paperwork, and clearing of  the Goods through customs.

3.5       The total price is $27,733.34

3.6       The price shall be paid as follows:

•           1/3rd deposit upon initiation of this Contract and issuance of the Purchase Order

•           1/3rd upon completion of unit/system and or photo or inspection at factory

•           Final 1/3rd prior to ship and confirming positive test results done by Purchaser at its facility in Moscow, Russian federation

•           Prices are FOB shipping point.

•           All payments are in US dollars.


4.1       The Goods shall be delivered to Purchaser, _________________________. Any access to premises and any labor and equipment that may be provided by Purchaser in connection with delivery shall be provided without acceptance by the Purchaser of any liability whatsoever and Almax shall indemnify Purchaser in respect of any actions, suits, claims, demands, losses, charges, costs and expenses which the Purchaser may suffer or incur as a result of or in connection with any damage or injury (whether fatal or otherwise) occurring in the course of delivery or installation to the extent that any such damage or injury is attributable to any act or omission of the Supplier or any of his subcontractors.

4.2       Where any access to the premises is necessary in connection with delivery or installation, the Supplier and his sub contractors shall at all times comply with the reasonable requirements of the Purchaser’ staff.

4.3       The time of delivery shall be of the essence and failure to deliver within eighty (80) days shall enable Purchaser (at its option) to release itself from any obligation to accept and pay for the Goods and/or to cancel all or part of the Contract therefore, in either case without prejudice to its other rights and remedies.


5.1       Property and risk in the Goods shall without prejudice to any of the rights or remedies of the Purchaser (including Purchaser’ rights and remedies under condition 7 hereof) pass to Almax at the time of delivery.

5.2       The property in the Goods shall pass to Purchaser upon payment for the Goods unless delivery of the Goods is made prior to payment, when it shall pass to Purchaser once the Goods have been delivered.

5.3       Any Goods for which the Supplier has received payment but which have not been delivered will, for the avoidance of doubt, remain the exclusive property of Purchaser and may be removed at any time by Purchaser or its representatives from wherever they are stored.


6.1       On dispatch of any consignment of the Goods Almax shall send to Purchaser at the address for delivery of the Goods an advice note specifying the means of transport, the place and the date of dispatch, the number of packages and their weight and volume. Almax  shall free of charge and as quickly as possible either repair or replace (as the Purchaser  shall elect) such of the Goods as may either be damaged in transit or having been placed in transit fail to be delivered to Purchaser provided that: (a) in the case of damage to such goods in transit the purchaser shall within 30 days of delivery give notice to Purchaser that the Goods have been damaged, (b) in the case of non delivery Purchaser shall (provided that Almax has been advised of the dispatch of the Goods) within 10 days of the notified date of delivery give notice to the Supplier that the Goods have not been delivered.


7.1       Almax Products guarantees and warrants that the cryostat will maintain a vacuum of 10-3 mm Hg between inner and outer containers with no more than 24 hours of pumping (using a standard laboratory vacuum pump with a minimum of 20 LPM of free air displacement and capable of delivering an ultimate vacuum of 1 x10 -4) per 30 day period. Almax further warrants that the cryostat (inner and outer containers and joint  at the neck-tube) will retain their structural integrity without leaking or cracking at a pressure difference of one atmosphere while storing a full load of liquid nitrogen (at least 2142 liters) and that the cryostat will conform to the description and drawings attached hereto as exhibit

7.2       Almax shall permit Purchaser or his authorized representatives to make any inspections or tests they may reasonably require and Almax shall afford all reasonable facilities and assistance free of charge at his premises. No failure to make complaint at the time of such inspection or tests and no approval given during or after such tests or inspections shall constitute a waiver by Purchaser’ of any rights or remedies in respect of the Goods.

7.3       Purchaser may by written notice to Almax reject any of the Goods which fail to meet the requirements specified herein. Such notice shall be given within a reasonable time after delivery to Purchaser of Goods concerned. If Purchaser shall reject any of the Goods pursuant to this Condition, Purchaser shall be entitled (without prejudice to his other rights and remedies) either (a) to have the Goods concerned as quickly as possible either repaired by Almax or (as the Purchaser shall elect) replaced by Almax with Goods which comply in all respects with the requirements specified herein, or (b) to obtain a refund from Almax in respect of the Goods concerned with no charge, either in materials or labor, to Purchaser.

7.3       The guarantee period applicable to the cryostat shall be 3 years from putting into service or 3 years from delivery, whichever shall be the shorter (subject to any alternative guarantee arrangements agreed in writing between Purchaser and Almax). If Purchaser shall within such guarantee period, or within 30 days thereafter, give notice in writing to Almax of any defect in any of the Goods as may have arisen during such guarantee period under proper and normal use Almax shall (without prejudice to any other rights and remedies which Purchaser may have) as quickly as possible remedy such defects (whether by repair or replacement as the Purchaser may elect) without cost to Purchaser.

7.4       Prior to shipment of the cryostat Almax shall perform a successful vacuum confirmation and spark test and provide detailed results of these test to Purchaser.

7.5       Any Goods rejected or returned by Purchaser as described in paragraph 7.2 or 7.3 shall be returned to the Almax at Almax’s risk and expense.


8.1       The Goods shall be packed and marked in a proper manner and in accordance with the Purchaser’s instructions and any statutory requirements and any requirements of the carriers. In particular, the Goods shall be marked with the Purchase Order number, the net gross and tare weights, the name of the contents shall be clearly marked on each container and all containers of hazardous goods (and any documents relating thereto) shall bear prominent and adequate warnings. Almax shall indemnify Purchaser against all actions, suits, claims, demands, losses, charges, costs and expenses which Purchaser may suffer or incur as a result of, or in connection with, any breach of this Condition.

8.2       All packaging materials will be considered nonrefundable and will be destroyed unless Almax’s advice note states that such materials will be charged for unless returned. The Purchaser accepts no liability in respect of the non-arrival at the Supplier’s premises of empty packages returned by Purchaser unless Almax shall within 10 days of receiving notice from the Purchaser that the packages have been dispatched notify Purchaser of such non-arrival.

8.3       Almax agrees to accept for placement in the sea-land container transporting the Goods to Purchaser at ____________________________ such other accessory items and equipment as will reasonably fit in the container upon the mutual agreement of both parties at no additional charge to Purchaser.


Almax shall not offer or give or agree to give, to any employee or representative of Purchaser any gift or consideration of any kind as an inducement or reward for doing or refraining from doing or having done or refrained from doing, any act in relation to the obtaining or execution of this or any other contract with Almax or showing or refraining from showing favor or disfavor to any person in relation to this or any such contract.


10.1    It shall be a condition of the Contract that the Goods are made up in accordance with designs furnished by Almax that none of the Goods will infringe any patent, trademark, registered design, copyright or other right in the nature of industrial property of any third party and Almax shall indemnify Purchaser against all actions, suits, claims, demands, losses, charges, costs and expenses which Purchaser may suffer or incur as a result of or in connection with any breach of this Condition.

10.2    All rights (including ownership and copyright) in any specifications, instructions, plans, drawings, patterns, models, designs or other materials (a) furnished to or made available to Almax Purchaser pursuant to the Contract, shall remain vested solely in Purchaser (b) prepared by or for Almax for use, or intended use, in relation to the performance of this Contract are hereby assigned to and shall be vested in the Purchaser solely and (without prejudice to condition 14.2). Almax shall not, and shall procure that his servants and agents shall not (except to the extent necessary for the implementation of the Contract) without the prior written consent of Purchaser, use or disclose any such specifications, instructions, plans, drawings, patterns, models, designs or other materials as aforesaid, or any other information (whether or not relevant to the Contract) which Purchaser may obtain pursuant to or by reason of this Contract, except information which is in the public domain, otherwise than by reason of a breach of this provision, and in particular (but without prejudice to the generality of the foregoing) Almax shall not refer to Purchaser or the Contract in any advertisement without Purchaser’ prior written agreement.

10.3    The provision of this Condition 10 shall apply during the continuance of this Contract and after its termination, howsoever arising.


Almax represents and warrants to Purchaser that Purchaser has satisfied itself that all necessary tests and examinations have been made or will be made prior to delivery of the Goods to ensure that the Goods are designed and made so as to be safe and without risk to the health and safety of persons using the same, and that Almax has made available Purchaser adequate information about the use for which the Goods have been designed and which have been tested and about any Conditions necessary to ensure that when put to use the Goods will be safe and without risk to health. Almax shall indemnify Purchaser against all actions, suits, claims, demands, losses, charges, costs and expenses which Purchaser may suffer or incur as a result of or in connection with any breach of this Condition.


12.1    Without prejudice to any rights or remedies of Purchaser’ (including Purchaser’ rights and remedies under condition 7 hereof) Almax shall indemnify Purchaser, its agents and employees against all actions, suits, claims, demands, losses, charges, costs and expenses which Purchaser may suffer or incur as a result of or in connection with any damage to property or in respect of any injury (whether fatal or otherwise) to any person which may result directly or indirectly from any defect in the Goods or the negligent or wrongful act or omission of the Almax.

12.2    Purchaser shall have in force and shall require any sub-contractor of Almax to have in force; (a) employer’s liability insurance in accordance with any legal requirements for the time being in force, and (b) public liability insurance for such sum and range of cover as Almax deems to be appropriate but covering at least all matters which are the subject of indemnities or compensation obligations under these Conditions in the sum of not less than $1,000,000 for any one incident and unlimited in total, unless otherwise agreed by Almax in writing.

12.3    The policy or policies of insurance referred to in paragraph 12.2 shall be shown to Purchaser whenever it requests, together with satisfactory evidence of payment of premiums.


13.1    Almax’s shall take all reasonable steps to ensure that all persons engaged in any work in connection with this Contract have notice that the statutory provisions apply to them and will continue so to apply after the expiry or termination of this Contract.

13.2    Almax shall keep secret and not disclose and shall procure that his employees shall keep secret and do not disclose any information of a confidential nature obtained by him by reason of the Contract except information which is in the public domain otherwise than by reason of a breach of this Provision.

13.3    The provisions of paragraphs 14.1 and 14.2 shall apply during the continuance of this Contract and after its termination howsoever arising.


14.1    Almax shall notify Purchaser in writing immediately upon the occurrence of any of the following events:

a) where Almax is an individual and if a petition is presented for Almax’s bankruptcy or the sequestration of its estate or a criminal bankruptcy order is made against Almax  or Almax is apparently insolvent or Almax  makes any conveyance or assignation for the benefit of creditors, or if an administrator is appointed to manage his affairs; or b) where Almax is not an individual but is a firm; or a number of persons acting together in any capacity, if any event in (a) or (c) of this Condition occurs in respect of any partner in the firm or any of those persons or a petition is presented for Almax to be wound up as an unincorporated company; or c) where the Almax is a company, if the company passes a resolution for a winding-up or dissolution (otherwise than for the purposes of and followed by an amalgamation or reconstruction) or the court makes an administration order or a winding-up order, or the company makes a composition or arrangement with its creditors, or an administrative receiver, receiver or manager is appointed by a creditor or by the court, or possession is taken of any of its property under the terms of a floating charge.

14.2    On the occurrence of any of the events described in paragraph 15.1, or if Almax shall have committed a material breach of this contract and (if such breach is capable of remedy) shall have failed to remedy such breach within 30 days of being required by Purchaser in writing to do so, or, where Almax is an individual, if he shall die or be adjudged incapable of managing his affairs by determination of a court of law, Purchaser shall be entitled to terminate this Contract by notice to Almax with immediate effect. Thereupon, without prejudice to another of its rights, Purchaser may itself complete the Services or have them completed by a third party using for that purpose (making a fair and proper allowance therefore in any payment subsequently made to Almax) all materials, plant and equipment on the Premises belonging to the Almax, and the Purchaser shall not be liable to make any further payment to Almax until the Services have been completed in accordance with the requirements of this Contract, and shall be entitled to deduct from any amount due to the Almax the costs thereof incurred by Purchaser (including the Purchaser’ own costs). If the total cost to the Purchaser exceeds the amount (if any) due to Almax, the difference shall be recoverable by the Purchaser from Almax.

14.3    In addition to his rights of termination under paragraph Purchaser shall be entitled to terminate this contract by giving to Almax  not less than 30 days’ notice to that effect. In the event of such termination Almax shall, if required to do so by Purchaser , prepare and submit to  Purchaser a report on the work done prior to the termination and making such recommendations as may be based on the work done prior to termination.

14.4    Termination under paragraphs 14.2 or 14.3 shall not prejudice or affect any right of action or remedy which shall have accrued or shall thereupon accrue to Purchaser and shall not affect the continued operation of Conditions 10 and 14.


Wherever under the Contract any sum of money is recoverable from or payable by Almax, that sum may be deducted from any sum then due, or which at any later time may become due, to the Supplier under this Contract or under any other agreement or contract with Purchaser


16.1    Almax shall not assign or sub-contract any portion of the Contract without the prior written consent of Purchaser. Sub-contracting any part of the Contract shall not relieve Almax of any obligation or duty attributable to it under the Contract or these conditions.

16.2    Where Purchaser has consented to the placing of subcontracts, copies of each sub-contract shall be sent by the Supplier to the Purchaser immediately it is issued.

16.3    Where Almax enters a sub-contract with a supplier or contractor for the purpose of performing the Contract, Almax shall cause a term to be included in such sub-contract which requires payment to be made to the supplier or contractor within a specified period not exceeding 30 days from receipt of a valid invoice as defined by the sub-contract terms.


17.1    For the purposes of this Contract the expression “force majeure” shall mean any cause affecting the performance by a party of its obligations arising from acts, events, omissions, happenings or non happenings beyond its reasonable control including (but without limiting the generality thereof) governmental regulations, fire, flood, or any disaster or an industrial dispute affecting a third party for which a substitute third party is not reasonably available. In the case of Almax, each cause will only be considered force majeure if it is not attributable to the willful act, neglect or failure to take reasonable precautions of Almax, its agents or employees.

17.2    Neither party shall, in any circumstances, be liable to the other for any loss of any kind whatsoever including, but not limited to, any damages or abatement of charges whether directly or indirectly caused to or incurred by the other party by reason of any failure or delay in the performance of its obligations hereunder which is due to force majeure.

17.3    If either of the parties shall become aware of circumstances of force majeure which give rise to or which are likely to give rise to any such failure or delay on its part, it shall forthwith notify the other by the most expeditious method then available and shall inform the other of the period which it is estimated that such failure or delay shall continue.

17.4    It is expressly agreed that any failure by Almax to perform or any delay by Almax in performing its obligations under this Contract which results from any failure or delay in the performance of its obligations by any person, firm or company with which Almax shall have entered into any contract, supply arrangement or sub-contract or otherwise shall be regarded as a failure or delay due to force majeure only in the event that such person, firm or company shall itself be prevented from or delayed in complying with its obligations under such contract, supply arrangement, subcontract or otherwise as a result of circumstances or force majeure.

17.5    For the avoidance of doubt, it is hereby expressly declared that the only events which shall afford relief from liability for failure or delay shall be any event qualifying for force majeure hereunder


Almax shall provide details of two reference bodies including names and telephone numbers of contacts, for whom similar work has been, or is currently, undertaken.


19.1    The failure of either party to insist upon strict performance of any provision of the Contract, or the failure of either party to exercise any right or remedy to which it is entitled under the Contract, shall not constitute a waiver thereof and shall not cause a diminution of the obligations established by the agreement.

19.2    A waiver of any default shall not constitute a waiver of any subsequent default.

19.3    No waiver of any of the provisions of the Contract shall be effective unless it is expressly stated to be a waiver and communicated to the other party in writing.


If any provision of the Contract is held invalid, illegal or unenforceable for any reason by any court of competent jurisdiction, such provision shall be severed and the remainder of the provisions hereof shall continue in full force and effect as if the Contract had been executed with the invalid, illegal or unenforceable provision eliminated. In the event of a holding of invalidity so fundamental as to prevent the accomplishment of the purpose of the agreement, the Purchaser and Almax shall immediately commence good faith negotiations to remedy such invalidity.


Any notice given under or pursuant to the Contract may be sent by hand or by post or by registered post or by the recorded delivery service or transmitted by telex, telemessage, facsimile transmission or other means of telecommunication resulting in the receipt of a written communication in permanent form and if so sent or transmitted to the address of the party shown in the Purchase Order, or to such other address as the party may by notice to the other have substituted therefore, shall be deemed effectively given on the day when in the ordinary course of the means of transmission it would first be received by the addressee in normal business hours.


Any controversy or claim arising out of or relating to this Contract, or the breach thereof shall be settled by binding arbitration in accordance with the Commercial Arbitration Rules of the American Arbitration Association, and judgment upon the award entered by the arbitrator(s) may be entered and enforced by any court having jurisdiction thereof. Additionally, the parties intend that the arbitrators have power to issue any provisional relief appropriate to the circumstances, including but not limited to: temporary restraining orders, injunctions and attachments. The parties intend that this agreement to arbitrate be irrevocable and agree that either party is entitled to injunctive relief to quash litigation by the other part which breaches the agreement


The headings to Conditions shall not affect their interpretation.


The Contract shall be governed by and construed in accordance with United States of America law and Almax hereby irrevocably submits to the jurisdiction of the US courts. The submission to such jurisdiction shall not (and shall not be construed so as to) limit the right of the Purchaser to take proceedings against Almax  in any other court of competent jurisdiction, nor shall the taking of proceedings in any one or more jurisdictions preclude the taking of proceedings in any other jurisdiction, whether concurrently or not.


IN WITNESS WHEREOF, the parties hereto have executed this

Agreement as of the date and year indicated below.

______Month _______Day ___________Year


By : _____________________________


Title: General Director, “Purchaser”


Almax Products, Inc.


Bruce Alter

Title: President, Chief Executive Officer




Almax Products agrees to supply

At this time Price for one (1) complete unit, per contract to include:

double wall fiberglass liquid nitrogen storage system complete with required load of perlite, fill/load service fitting installed and 4 extra bags of perlite for “toping off” system…

Lifting lugs (3) placed per details


PRICE $ 25,000 USD

2 plus units:

@ $ 22,000  Each  USD






55 gallons Hetron 922 Resin** @ $ 595  USD

** Catalyst can not be shipped due to regulations.

This can be obtained via web site or local hardware or DIY store.

Extra Perlite: 14 bags Grefco Minerals HP-500 grade   @ $ 30 a bag ( 30 pound ) plus a $ 15 pallet charge

5-layers of Fire Flame 88 equal  Flame Control 20-20 A @ $ 1320  USD

1-Extra sealing Filter Plate Fiberglass @ $ 540 USD

1-Welch Model # 1376C-03  Vacuum pump wired for 220V, 50Hz 1 phase with Schuko Plug @ $ 4480 USD

5-clevises for lifting with a capacity 2,000 kg @ $ 29.70 each USD




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